MBI 414/514 - Immunology Principles
MBI 415/515 - Immunology Principles and Practice

Sample Questions for Exam 4

MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the letter corresponding to the ONE answer for each question.

  1. Which statement about hypersensitivity is correct?
    a. Type III and type II hypersensitivity are similar, but differ in that type III reactions involve responses to self antigens and type II reactions do not.
    b. Histamine and leukotrienes, both released by mast cells, are mediators of inflammation, but not hypersensitivity reactions.
    c. Mediators of type IV hypersensitivity include IFN-gamma as well as factors that affect macrophage chemotaxis or migration.

  2. Which statement related to vaccines and vaccination is correct?
    a. The main strategy in immunization against viral diseases is to generate as many memory B cells as possible, so responses to infection will be quicker.
    b. Current vaccines used to prevent diseases caused by toxins generally contain chemically-inactivated toxin, referred to as toxoid.
    c. Research has shown that both DNA vaccines and plants genetically-engineered to contain antigens induce tolerance rather than stimulating immune responses when ingested.

MATCHING MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the BEST answer. An answer may be used more than once within a set of questions.

Answers to questions 3-4:
a. CTLs
b. Macrophages
c. Eosinophils
d. NK cells
e. More than one of these
  1. Immunity against the larval forms of certain intestinal parasites can involve the participation of _____, which also accumulate at sites where atopic hypersensitivity reactions are occurring so this effect is often used by pathologists as indicators of atopic hypersensitivity reactions.

  2. _____ participate in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by virtue of having FcR and granules containing factors that can damage target cells.

TRUE FALSE: If a statement is TRUE, print T in the blank; if it is FALSE, print F.

  1. Arthus reactions are typified by formation of soluble immune complexes in the kidneys, lungs or joints, whereas serum sickness is typified by formation of large, insoluble immune complexes at a local site of administration of the eliciting dose of antigen.

  2. The hemostasis observed in acute inflammatory responses results from constriction of the arteries and dilation of the veins in the immediate area, and results in the exudation of fluid, but not cells, into an area where cell damage has occurred.

Answering the following essay questions correctly will lead you to a better understanding of the concepts we covered during this course ... at least three of them will be on the final exam.

Discuss these four features of antigens in general, then relate each of them to the principles of vaccine design:
a. Foreigness
b. Size
c. Composition and complexity
d. Determinants

The mythical Gram-negative extracellular bacterium, Stevensonella pulmonensis, causes a disease called acute miamiosis as the result of its thick capsule and production of a toxin that causes buildup of fluid in the lungs. Which of these immune mechanism(s) would be most effective against this bacterium... How and why?
a. Antibody specific for the toxin would be helpful because it might neutralize the toxin by preventing its interaction with cellular targets.
b. Activated macrophages would be required because these cells would be able to prevent intracellular multiplication of this parasite
c. Opsonizing antibody specific for capsular antigens might be helpful because it would be able to enhance phagocytosis of the bacterium by neutrophils, which could then kill it intracellularly.
d. ADCC mediated by NK cells would be a primary line of defense against this pathogen because it would provide for its complement mediated lysis.

Define each of these terms, then explain the relationships among them:
a. Lymphocyte -
b. Natural killer (NK) cell -
c. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) -
d. Relationships -

Generate a single overview diagram that shows how Th1 and Th2 cells interact with APCs, B cells, Tc cells, and macrophages to assist in generation of antibody responses, CTL responses and activated macrophage responses, respectively. (Note: Be certain to label each of the cells, indicate which cytokines areinvolved, and provide brief descriptions of the processes that occur as a result of each of the interactions.)

Generate a diagram that depicts the events in T cell intracellular signaling (signals 1, 2 and 3), then compare and contrast (in words) this pathway with the events that occur in B cell signaling (signals 1, 2 and 3).

Generate a diagram that depicts the events in T cell development in the thymus, then compare and contrast (in words) this pathway with the events that occur in B cell development in the bone marrow.

Describe the process of apoptosis, then explain how it is induced and carried out in each of these instances:
a. Positive and negative selection in either T or B cell development
b. Regulation of T cell responses
c. NK cell and CTL function
d. Eosinophil function in ADCC

Discuss, at the mechanistic level, the role of antigen processing and presentation in determining the outcome of an immune response against each of these types of parasite:
a. Extracellular parasite
b. Obligate intracellular parasite
c. Facultative intracellular parasite.
(To answer this question, you will need to choose a specific microbe that is applicable to each of these situations, and you will need to explain, in detail, how the antigen processing pathways used in each instance function and how they influence the subsequent immune response.)

Discuss how receptors function vis-à-vis binding of ligand and initiation of intracellular signaling, in general, then explain how this works in detail for each of these:
a. IFN-gamma receptor
b. TLR 4
c. FCR

Describe, in detail, the mechanisms involved in generating TCR diversity, then compare and contrast these mechanisms with those involved in generating:
a. BCR diversity
b. MHC diversity

Discuss the relationships between immunoglobulin structures of all five classes (IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE) of antibody and the functions that each of these types of antibody can carry out in antibody mediated immunity, including complement interactions.

Discuss the mechanisms of activation and regulation of the classical, MBL and alternative complement activation pathways we discussed in class, then explain why all the negative regulatory processes in each are necessary to prevent immunopathologic reactions.

Draw a series of four diagrams depicting the events involved in margination and extravasation of neutrophils into inflammatory sites. In your diagrams, be sure to include cell surface molecule interactions, chemokines that influence these interactions, and the process of diapedesis. Also, be sure to label every component and to include short descriptions of what is occurring in each diagram. Finally, compare and contrast this series of events with those that occur during emigration of lymphocytes from the bloodstream into lymphoid tissue via HEVs.

Generate a series of diagrams (one for each major step) depicting the sequence of interactions involved in activation of a B cell by a T helper cell, starting with binding antigen to BCRs, and finishing with activation of the B cell by cytokines secreted by the Th cell. Explain how (and where) this sequence of events is important in antibody responses in germinal centers of lymph nodes. (Be certain that your diagrams are clearly labeled, and complete your answer by adding a text description that outlines the mechanisms involved in each step.)
 
Describe the mechanisms involved in class-switching in B cells during maturation of a T-dependent antibody response
Compare and contrast the structure and cellular architecture of a lymph node with that of a Peyer's patch, then compare and contrast mechanisms of antigen capture by cells in lymph nodes with those in the mucosal immune system of the small intestine.

Discuss the six CD4+ T cell subsets (both helper and regulator) we discussed in class, being sure to include the signature cytokines and master transcription factors as well as the cytokines that induce each of these cell types and the intracellular signaling pathways that each cytokine triggers.

Describe the mechanisms involved in somatic hypermutation and class-switching in B cells during maturation of a T-dependent antibody response in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid tissues with special emphasis on the mechanisms involved in each step of the process.

Discuss the potential problems vis-a-vis autoimmune disease that could lead to imperfect deletion of self-reactive (autoreactive) T cells as they develop and mature in thymus and B cells as they develop and mature in bone marrow, then splee, then discuss how these errors could lead to generation of autoimmune disease.

Using a graph that indicates the relative timing, isotype diversity, affinity and amounts of antibody produced, compare and contrast the primary and secondary antibody responses to a T-dependent antigen, then explain, in detail, how each of these factors relates to maturation of these antibody responses.

Discuss the specific role(s) of chemokines in attracting T and B cells to the paracortex, cortex and germinal centers in lymph nodes during antibody responses to TD antigens.


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© 1996-2014 John R. Stevenson. All Rights Reserved

Please
email questions and comments to:
John R. Stevenson, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Department of Microbiology
Miami University
Oxford, Ohio 45056
USA
This document was last modified on Wednesday, 26-Nov-2014 20:29:45 EST