MBI 414/514 - Immunology Principles
MBI 415/515 - Immunology Principles and Practice
Sample Questions for Exam 5
MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the letter corresponding to the ONE answer for each question.
Which statement about hypersensitivity is
a. Type III and type II hypersensitivity are similar,
but differ in that type III reactions involve responses to self antigens
and type II reactions do not.
b. Histamine and leukotrienes, both
released by mast cells, are mediators of inflammation, but
not hypersensitivity reactions.
c. Mediators of type IV hypersensitivity
include IFN-gamma as well as factors that affect macrophage
chemotaxis or migration.
Which statement related to vaccines and vaccination is correct?
a. The main strategy in immunization
against viral diseases is to generate as many memory B cells as possible, so responses to infection
will be quicker.
b. Current vaccines used to prevent diseases caused by toxins generally contain
chemically-inactivated toxin, referred to as toxoid.
c. Research has shown that both DNA vaccines and plants genetically-engineered to contain antigens induce tolerance rather than stimulating immune responses when ingested.
MATCHING MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the BEST answer. An answer may be used more than once within a set of questions.
Answers to questions 3-4:
d. NK cells
e. More than one of these
Immunity against the larval forms of certain intestinal
parasites can involve the participation of _____, which also accumulate at sites where atopic hypersensitivity
reactions are occurring so this effect is often used by pathologists
as indicators of atopic hypersensitivity reactions.
_____ participate in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by virtue of having FcR and granules containing factors that can damage target cells.
TRUE FALSE: If a statement is TRUE, print T in the blank; if it is FALSE, print F.
Arthus reactions are typified by formation of
soluble immune complexes in the kidneys, lungs or joints, whereas
serum sickness is typified by formation of large, insoluble immune
complexes at a local site of administration of the eliciting dose
The hemostasis observed in acute inflammatory responses
results from constriction of the arteries and dilation of
the veins in the immediate area, and results in the exudation
of fluid, but not cells, into an area where cell damage
Answering these essay questions correctly will lead you to a better understanding
of the concepts we covered during this course ... and
at least two of them will be on the final exam.
The mythical Gram-negative extracellular bacterium,
Stevensonella pulmonensis, causes a disease called acute
miamiosis as the result of its thick capsule and production of
a toxin that causes buildup of fluid in the lungs. Which immune
mechanism(s) would be effective against this bacterium... How and
a. Antibody specific for the toxin would be helpful
because it might neutralize the toxin by preventing its
interaction with cellular targets.
b. Activated macrophages would be required because these cells
would be able to prevent intracellular multiplication of this parasite
c. Opsonizing antibody specific for capsular antigens might be
helpful because it would be able to enhance phagocytosis of the
bacterium by neutrophils, which could then kill it
d. ADCC mediated by NK cells would be a primary line of
defense against this pathogen because it would provide for its
complement mediated lysis.
Define each of these terms, then briefly explain the relationships among them:
a. Lymphocyte -
b. Natural killer (NK) cell -
c. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) -
d. Relationships -
Generate a single overview diagram that shows how Th1 and Th2 cells interact with APCs, B cells, Tc cells, and macrophages to assist in generation of antibody responses, CTL responses and activated macrophage responses, respectively. (Note: Be certain to label each of the cells, indicate the cytokines involved, and provide brief descriptions of the processes that occur as a result of each of the interactions.)
Generate a diagram that depicts the events in T cell intracellular signaling (signals 1, 2 and 3), then compare and contrast (in words) this pathway with the events that occur in B cell signaling (signals 1, 2 and 3).
Generate a diagram that depicts the events in T cell development in the thymus, then compare and contrast (in words) this pathway with the events that occur in B cell development in the bone marrow.
Describe the process of apoptosis, then explain how it is induced and carried out in each of these instances:
a. Positive and negative selection in either T or B cell development
b. Regulation of T cell responses
c. NK cell and CTL function
d. Eosinophil function in ADCC
Discuss, at the mechanistic level, the role of antigen processing and presentation in determining the outcome of
an immune response against each of these types of parasite:
a. Extracellular parasite
b. Obligate intracellular parasite
c. Facultative intracellular parasite.
(To answer this question, you will need to choose a specific microbe that is applicable to each of these situations, and you will need to explain, in detail, how the antigen processing pathways used in each instance function and how they influence the subsequent immune response.)
Discuss how receptors function vis-à-vis binding of ligand and initiation of intracellular signaling, in general, then explain how this works in detail for each of these:
a. IFN-gamma receptor
c. BCR and B cell coreceptor
Describe, in detail, the mechanisms involved in generating TCR diversity, then compare and contrast these mechanisms with those involved in generating:
a. BCR diversity
b. MHC diversity
Discuss the relationships between immunoglobulin structures of all five classes (IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE) of antibody and the functions that each of these types of antibody can carry out in antibody mediated immunity, including complement interactions.
Discuss the mechanisms of activation and regulation of the three complement activation pathways we discussed in class, then explain why each of the negative regulatory processes in each are necessary to prevent hypersensitivity and/or autoimmune reactions.
Draw a series of four diagrams depicting the events involved in margination and extravasation of neutrophils into inflammatory sites. In your diagrams, be sure to include cell surface molecule interactions, chemokines that influence these interactions, and the process of diapedesis. Also, be sure to label every component and to include short descriptions of what is occurring in each diagram. Finally, compare and contrast this series of events with those that occur during emigration of lymphocytes from the bloodstream into lymphoid tissue via HEVs.
Generate a series of diagrams (one for each major step) depicting the sequence of interactions involved in activation of a B cell by a T helper cell, starting with binding antigen to BCRs, and finishing with activation of the B cell by cytokines secreted by the Th cell. Explain how (and where) this sequence of events is important in antibody responses in germinal centers of lymph nodes. (Be certain that your diagrams are clearly labeled, and complete your answer by adding a text description that outlines the mechanisms involved in each step.)
Describe the mechanisms involved in class-switching in B cells during maturation of a T-dependent antibody response.
Compare and contrast the structure and cellular architecture of a lymph node with that of a Peyer's patch, then compare and contrast mechanisms of antigen capture by cells in lymph nodes with those in the mucosal immune system of the small intestine.
Discuss CD4+ T cell subsets (both helper and regulator), being sure to include the signature cytokines and master transcription factors as well as the cytokines that induce each of these cell types and the intracellular signaling pathways that each cytokine triggers.
Using a graph that indicates the relative timing, isotype diversity, affinity and amounts of antibody produced, compare and contrast the primary and secondary antibody responses to a T-dependent antigen.