MBI 414/514 - Immunology Principles
MBI 415/515 - Immunology Principles and Practice
Sample Questions for Exam 3
MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the letter corresponding to the ONE answer for each question.
- Which statement about cytokines and immune responses is
a. Th2 cell generation is fostered by production of IFN-gamma, whereas IL-12 is the preferred signal for triggering proliferation of B cells and IL-4 is the preferred signal for triggering activation of Th17 cells.
b. In response to T cell cytokine signals, B cells switch isotype by excising "unwanted" intervening sequences of DNA, then ligating the "wanted" exons to form a functional transcriptional unit (gene).
c. IL-10 is a cytokine produced by macrophages that can stimulate the development of Th1 cells, thus fostering a cell-mediated immune response, whereas IL-6 and IL-21 foster Tfh differentiation.
- Which statement related to antibody responses is correct?
a. Signal 2 for B cells is generated as a result of cytokine binding and leads to expression of CD40L which provides survival signaling as well as upregulation of MHC2 and CD80/CD86 expression.
b. Switch sequences for class switch recombination areactivated by AID, which attacks regions that are being transcribed as a result of cytokine stimulation of the B cells involved.
c. Signal 2 for T cells is generated as a result of CD40 interaction with CD40L and results in cytokine synthesis and secretion as well as proliferation and differentiation into T memory cells.
- Which statement related to cell mediated immune responses is correct?
a. CTLs form antigen-specific conjugates with target cells via interaction of TCRs with processed Ag on target cell surfaces and non-antigen-specific intercellular adhesion molecules enhance the stability of the cell-cell interaction.
b. Granules containing lytic mediators are transported to CTL cytoplasmic membrane along microtubules, before these cells orient their microbule organizing centers (MTOCs) towards the bound target cell.
c. As macrophages are activated, they undergo a respiratory burst that results in increased production of reactive oxygen intermediates, including nitric oxide, peroxynitrite and nitrogen dioxide.
TRUE FALSE: If a statement is TRUE, print T in the blank; if it is FALSE, print F.
4. _____ NK cells are quite important during the early phases of immune responses to viruses and facultative intracellular parasites because they generate cytokines that help initiate these adaptive immune responses.
5. _____ Macrophages, eosinophils, basophils and NK cells can all participate in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by virtue of having FcR and granules containing factors that can damage target cells.
6. _____ The CD40 generated on T cells as a result of interaction of CD80 or CD86 with CTLA-4 on their surfaces is needed for isotype switching and affinity maturation.
Although the following questions may not be in the exact format as you might see them on the exam, answering them will lead you to a better understanding of the concepts they embody.
7. Outline the steps in the interactions between B cells and T cells in the paracortex and in germinal centers of lymph nodes during secondary antibody responses, paying attention to both signal 1 and signal 2 generation and transmission.
8. Discuss the process of affinity maturation and isotype switching as they occur in germinal centers during antibody responses. (Be sure to explain all cellular events in detail; it is not necessary, however, to discuss intracellular signaling events in this answer.)
9. ITAMs, found in the cytoplasmic tails of NK cell activating receptor molecules, assist in production of nuclear factors that help activate genes as a result of being dephosphorylated by protein tyrosine phosphatases.
10. Describe the mechanisms involved in class-switching in B cells during maturation of a T-dependent antibody response.
11. Discuss CD4+ T cell subsets (both helper and regulator), being sure to include the signature cytokines and master transcription factors as well as the cytokines that induce each of these cell types.
12. Using a graph that indicates the relative timing, isotype diversity, affinity and amounts of antibody produced, compare and contrast the primary and secondary antibody responses to a T-dependent antigen.
© 1996-2014 John R. Stevenson. All Rights
questions and comments to:
R. Stevenson, Ph.D.
Department of Microbiology
Oxford, Ohio 45056
This document was last modified on Monday, 10-Nov-2014 21:17:49 EST