MBI 414/514 - Immunology Principles
MBI 415/515 - Immunology Principles and Practice

Sample Questions for Exam 1

MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the letter corresponding to the ONE answer for each question.

comment-out some of these MC questions!
1. Which statement concerning innate host defense mechanisms is correct?
a. Host resistance mechanisms are said to be highly specific in their activities because they do not affect a broad range of microbes.
b. Chemical host defense factors include enzymes, complement, salts, fatty acids, and mucus (which is also a physical host defense factor).
c. Peristalsis functions only as an internal host defense mechanism by dissolving infectious agents while they are in our intestines.
 
2. Which statement concerning immune system cells is correct?
a. Neutrophil, but not macrophage, activity is augmented by opsonization due to antibody and/or complement.
b. The myeloid lineage of cells includes B and T lymphocytes as well as erythrocytes, but does not include granulocytes such as neutrophils, eosinophils or basophils.
c. Mast cells are important in inflammation because they release histamine upon membrane damage or when stimulated by activated complement components C3a or C5a.
 
3. Which statement about pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is correct?
a. To be accessible and to function in innate immune system cellular responses to infection, TLRs must be anchored in the cytoplasmic membrane.
b. PRRs are so-named because they recognize conserved chemical motifs or chemical "patterns" that are found in a wide variety of infectious agents.
c. NOD1 and NOD2 are intracellular PRRs that bind a wide variety of microbial motifs, leading to IkB signaling to genes in the nucleus of the cell.
4. Which statement concerning antigen-antibody interactions is correct?
a. Avidity is the strength of binding of one determinant to its antibody combining site, whereas affinity is the strength of interaction of multivalent antigen binding to more than one antibody combining site.
b. Antigens interact with antibodies via covalent bonds, especially those formed between sulfur or nitrogen atoms that are adjacent to one another.
c. Linear antigenic determinants depend on directly on the primary sequence of subunits, whereas conformational determinants depend on secondary, tertiary or quaternary structure.
1. Which statement about B cell receptors is correct?
a. The B cell coreceptor is comprised of CD3 together with CD19 and CD22, and these molecules work together to enhance B cell signaling by removing inhibitory phosphates from the ITAMs of the PTKs.
b. BCRs are expressed together with Igα/Igβ, which are necessary for signal transduction after binding of antigen by BCRs because they possess ITAMs.
c. B cell receptors signal the nucleus as a result of activation of G proteins such as ras or rac, and the final product of the MAP kinase pathway that they activate generates NFAT for use as a transcription factor.

2. During B cell activation:
a. Syk activates phospholipase C (PLC) to cleave phosphatidylinositol (PIP2) forming DAG, which then activates NF-AT via protein kinase C (PKc).
b. CD45 removes the inhibitory phosphates from Blk, Lyn and Fyn so they can phosphorylate ITAMs of Igα/Igβ subunits, leading to activation of Syk via phosphorylation.
c. Rac-mediated release of Mg2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum activates IP3 to trigger calmodulin-dependent generation of AP-1.

MATCHING MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the BEST answer. An answer may be used more than once within a set of questions.

Answers to questions 4-5:
a. IgM
b. IgD
c. IgA
d. IgG
e. IgE

4. _____ is frequently a dimeric immunoglobulin that does not bind complement well but is found in high concentrations in mucous secretions.

5. _____ is the class of antibody that is present at very low levels concentration in serum and is able to bind to basophils and mast cells to initiate allergic reactions.

TRUE FALSE: If a statement is TRUE, print T in the blank; if it is FALSE, print F.

comment-out one of these TF questions!

6. The hemostasis observed in acute inflammatory responses results from constriction of the arteries and dilation of the veins in the immediate area, and results in the exudation of fluid, but not cells, into an area where cell damage has occurred.

7. Bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells are self-renewing pluripotent cells that can differentiate into lymphoid or myeloid progenitor cells under the influence of various combinations of growth factors and cytokines to which they are exposed in these tissues.

8. Experiments have shown that T cell signaling resulting from TCR binding to MHC-antigen is different than B cell signaling resulting from BCR binding to antigen, although the basic set of processes is similar and uses the same types of molecules for similar purposes.

ESSAY and/or PROBLEM-SOLVING QUESTION:

9. Explain how inflammation develops at a site of infection in the tissues, being sure to discuss all the types of cells and molecules that are involved in this process, then discuss how it can foster delivery of immune system cells and chemical factors to a site of infection.

10. Define each of these terms, then briefly discuss the relationships among them. a. phagocytosis - b. C3b - c. oxygen-dependent intracellular killing mechanisms - d. relationships -

11. Draw a series of four diagrams that depicts the events involved in margination and diapedesis of PMNs. In your diagrams, be sure to include not only cell surface molecule interactions, but also molecules that influence these interactions and the process of diapedesis. Also, be sure to label every component and to include short descriptions of what is occurring in each diagram.

12. For each of the major advances listed below, name the immunologist(s) responsible and briefly explain how the experiment leading to the discovery was done. (Note: it is not necessary to explain the mechanisms of the methods used).
a. IgG antibody molecules possess 2 different kinds of polypeptides.
b. When comparing antibodies specific for different antigens, the N-terminal half light chain is highly variable, whereas the C-terminal half is relatively constant in its amino acid sequence.
c. Amino acids in the hypervariable regions mediate the direct contact of the antibody combining site with an antigenic determinant.
d. Three-dimensional structure of immunoglobulin.
e. Each IgG antibody molecule is made up of 2 heavy and 2 light chains.
f. Primary amino acid sequence of IgG.

13. Using an integrated one-page answer, discuss all of the following questions:
a. What is the Ig-fold?
b. How is the Ig-fold related to the overall structure of antibody molecules?
c. How is the Ig-fold related to variable domain structure?
d. How is the Ig-fold related to antibody specificity?

14. Draw a domain-based "stick" model of IgM, being certain to label all the parts.


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© 1996-2014 John R. Stevenson. All Rights Reserved

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email questions and comments to:
John R. Stevenson, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Department of Microbiology
Miami University
Oxford, Ohio 45056
USA
This document was last modified on Monday, 08-Sep-2014 23:47:46 EDT